Sunday, May 24, 2020
In classical rhetoric, parrhesia is free, frank, and fearless speech. In ancient Greek thought, speaking with parrhesia meant saying everything or speaking ones mind. An intolerance of parrhesia, notes S. Sara Monoson, marked tyranny of both the Hellenic and Persian varieties in the Athenian view. . . . The coupling of freedom and parrhesia in the democratic self-image . . . functioned to assert two things: the critical attitude appropriate to a democratic citizen, and the open life promised by democracy (Platos Democratic Entanglements, 2000). Examples and Observations The author of [Rhetorica] ad Herennium discussed a figure of thought called parrhesia (frankness of speech). This figure occurs when, talking before those to whom we owe reverence or fear, we yet exercise our right to speak out, because we seem justified in reprehending them, or persons dear to them, for some fault (IV xxxvi 48). For example: The university administration has tolerated hate speech on this campus, and so to some extent they are responsible for its widespread use. An opposing figure is litotes(understatement), where a rhetor diminishes some feature of the situation that is obvious to all.(Sharon Crowley and Debra Hawhee, Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. Pearson, 2004)To best reflect the meanings in its own context, parrhesia should be thought of as true speech: the parrhesiastes is the one who speaks the truth. Parrhesia required that the speaker use the most direct words and expressions possible in order to make it clear that whatever he might be saying wa s his own opinion. As a speech activity, parrhesia was largely limited to male citizens.(Kyle Grayson, Chasing Dragons. University of Toronto Press, 2008)What is basically at stake in parrhesia is what could be called, somewhat impressionistically, the frankness, freedom, and openness, that leads one to say what one has to say, as one wishes to say it, when one wishes to say it, and in the form one thinks is necessary for saying it. The term parrhesia is so bound up with the choice, decision, and attitude of the person speaking that the Latins translated it by, precisely, libertas [speaking freely].(Michel Foucault, The Hermeneutics of the Subject: Lectures at the College de France 1981--1982. Macmillan, 2005)The Fearless Speech of Malcolm XMalcolm X is the great example of parrhesia in the black prophetic tradition. The term goes back to line 24A of Platos Apology, where Socrates says, the cause of my unpopularity was my parrhesia, my fearless speech, my frank speech, my plain spee ch, my unintimidated speech. The hip hop generation talks about keeping it real. Malcolm was as real as it gets. James Brown talked about make it funky. Malcolm was always. Bring in the funk, bring in the truth, bring in the reality. . . .When Malcom looked at black life in America, he saw wasted potential; he saw unrealized aims. This kind of prophetic witness can never be crushed. There was no one like him in terms of having the courage to risk life and limb to speak such painful truths about America.(Cornel West, Firebrand. Smithsonian, February 2015)Eisenhower on the Military-Industrial ComplexWe annually spend on military security alone more than the net income of all United States corporations.Now this conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence--economic, political, even spiritual--is felt in every city, every Statehouse, every office of the Federal government. We recognize the imperative ne ed for this development. Yet, we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources, and livelihood are all involved. So is the very structure of our society.In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together. . . .Disarmament, with mutual honor and confidence, is a continuing imperative. Together we must learn how to compose differences, not with arms, but with intellect and decent purpose. Because this need is so sharp and apparent , I confess that I lay down my official responsibilities in this field with a definite sense of disappointment. As one who has witnessed the horror and the lingering sadness of war, as one who knows that another war could utterly destroy this civilization which has been so slowly and painfully built over thousands of years, I wish I could say tonight that a lasting peace is in sight.Happily, I can say that war has been avoided. Steady progress toward our ultimate goal has been made. But so much remains to be done.(President Dwight Eisenhower, Farewell Address, January 17, 1961)Straight Talk as a Rhetorical TropeI read S. Sara Monosons excellent work on parrhesia (frank speech) in ancient Athens. I thought, this is it--we can use this ethic of parrhesia as our own democratic ideal! But then I began to notice that our popular culture in fact already praised something like parrhesia: straight talk. Political theorists also have a similar ethic: sincerity. But the problem was that a lot of straight-talkers seemed deeply undemocratic: straight talk seemed to have become a trope, another tool of crafty politicians and smart advertising executives.(Elizabeth Markovits, The Politics of Sincerity: Plato, Frank Speech, and Democratic Judgment. The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008)
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Logistics management covers every stage of the physical distribution process, from raw materials and component parts being ordered and delivered to the factory, materials handling and storage, stock control, sales forecasting from which the forecasts of individual components parts, transport and storage requirements are derived. Other functions include order processing, the purchasing and replenishment of stock, packing, delivery, achievement of set service levels, warehouse location, fleet management and scheduling and the management and operation of a logistics information system which acts as a recording system, aids forecasting, scheduling, model building and produces the myriad of documentation needed for the efficientÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Because the activities making up logistics management are often complex and highly specialised, they need to be managed by professional staff. To illustrate this, the use of fork lift trucks, cranes, gantries and lifts can be a very d angerous business. Such equipment forms the tools of materials handling. The improper use of such equipment can result in serious injury and damage or even death. Consequently, the people in charge of such operations must be fully qualified and professional. Likewise, those in charge of transport must have technical expertise. The proper loading of vehicles, the securing of loads, the correct weight distribution of loads, the handling of dangerous and hazardous material all require specialised knowledge and expertise. No one would expect a marketing manager or director, no matter how experienced, to be qualified in all of these specialist areas. Although it is becoming increasingly likely that senior marketing staff might have come from a physical distribution background, specialist staff will still be needed. It is not intended that marketing should dictate the day-to-day management policy of the logistics function. This should be left to those individuals who are qualified to make the correct decisions and judgments. However, because logistics has such an important long-term strategicShow MoreRelatedLogistics Management And Supply Chain Management1171 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLogistics and Supply Chain Management Topic: Do the terms, Ã¢â¬Ëlogistics managementÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ësupply chain managementÃ¢â¬â¢ have the same meaning in operations and why logistics management might be of strategic importance to a manufacturing or service organisation. During last two decades, the importance of logistics has been noticed around the world. In global markets, the effects and further developments of logistics and supply chain management for corporate success has increased significantly that resultRead MoreLogistics Management And Supply Chain Management1125 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Aero Marine Logistics Tomer Dicturel California InterContinental University Aero Marine Logistics Introduction During last two decades, the importance of logistics has been noticed around the world. In global markets, the effects and further developments of logistics and supply chain management for corporate success has increased significantly that result in a large amount of companies have taken actual benefits in logistics, such as reducing costs, enhancing customers satisfactionRead MoreLogistics and Supply Chain Management1168 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTopic: Do the terms, Ã¢â¬Ëlogistics managementÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ësupply chain managementÃ¢â¬â¢ have the same meaning in operations and why logistics management might be of strategic importance to a manufacturing or service organisation. During last two decades, the importance of logistics has been noticed around the world. In global markets, the effects and further developments of logistics and supply chain management for corporate success has increased significantly that result in a large amount of companies haveRead MoreApplication Of A Vendor Invoice Validation771 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesservices received for Gulf Interstate Engineering projects. SCOPE The scope of this work instruction is to define the steps taken within the Materials Management Group to validate vendor invoices for payment. PRODUCTS This work instruction will produce: Ã¢â¬ ¢ invoice tracking log Ã¢â¬ ¢ validated invoice and supporting documentation RESPONSIBILITIES Ã¢â¬ ¢ Buyer Ã¢â¬â responsible for reviewing material invoices. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Director, Materials Management Group Ã¢â¬â responsible for the final approval of all invoices priorRead MoreSustainable Supply Chain986 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSUSTAINABILITY SUSTAINABILITY Role of reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chain in sustainability Implementation Manufacturing Strategy | AbstractIn this interim report, motive for doing this topic has been discussed and further, the methodology which will be used to reach the conclusion is also been mentioned. Finally, expected takeaway are also been highlighted. Kuldeep Jain - 1401083 Term Paper Ã¢â¬â Interim Report | Role of reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chain in sustainabilityRead MoreThe Relocation of Riordans China Plant739 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Chinese partner was able to help Riordan to develop this facility by finding labor, communicating with the local vendors, governments, and regulatory agencies as well as being contributing capital to the project. The Riordan team has provided management and operational guidance to the Chinese partners in the joint-venture. The team originally chose the Hangzhou location because of the proximity to the Qiantang River and its tactile advantage of allowing the facility to use the river for transportationRead MoreJohn Deere1046 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe company is partnered with FedEx in order to maintain the logistics flow involved with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s transactions. FedEx is responsible for providing outsourced transportation services to 11 Deere facilities across the US and Canada. The 11 Deere facilities have different service agreements with FedEx in terms of cost and service depending on the type of business unit. With different prices and services across the facilities, management is trying to identify opportunities to standardize costs andRead MoreIbm Supply Chain1592 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages* Supply Chain Management In IBM: * Early 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s: decentralized geographic and functional departments * Mid-late 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s: Distribution and logistics functions centralized into a global organization with world-wide responsibility * Early 2000Ã¢â¬â¢s: merger of Customer Fulfillment, Procurement, Manufacturing, and Global Logistics/Distribution functions into a new global Integrated Supply Chain function * Result: cost savings of $5.6B in 2002 and $7B in 2003 * A Case studyRead MoreImpact Of Downturn On The Fall Of Construction Output1466 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDepartment of Energy Climate Change (2013) These cost and price pressures through the downturn have had a polarized affect on the construction logistics market; there has been substantial contraction of specialist haulage fleets including a number of businesses ceasing trading; yet there has also been a greater consideration to outsource logistics activities to release capital and achieve cost savings. The construction market structure and price pressure (as opposed to genuine supply chain wasteRead MoreUnderstanding Logistics Management and Supply Chain Management1746 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDo the terms, logistics management and supply chain management have the same meaning in operations Briefly explain how logistics management adds value to the operations of a manufacturing or service organisation. Introduction Logistics management and supply chain management are similar terms in business logistics, but these two terms are not the same (Murphy and Wood 2011, p22). In different decades, scholars made use of their knowledge and experience to define logistics management and supply chain
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The path of small entrepreneurs is not rosy. Small entrepreneurs face the following types of problems: (1) Problem of raw materials: A major problem that the small entrepreneurs face is the procurement of raw materials. They have to confront with numerous problems like; i. We will write a custom essay sample on Problems of Small Scale Industries or any similar topic only for you Order Now Availability of inadequate quantity ii. Poor quality of materials iii. High cost of raw materials etc All these factors adversely affect the proper functioning of small units. (2) Problem of finance: Finance is one of the most important problems faced by small entrepreneurs. As finance is the life blood of a business organization and no business organization can function properly in the absence of adequate funds. The problem of finance in small sector is mainly due to two reasons i. e. (i) Scarcity of capital in the country as a whole. (ii) Weal credit-worthiness of small units in the country. Due to their weak economic base, they find it difficult to take financial assistance from the commercial banks and financial institutions. Therefore, small entrepreneurs have to obtain credit from the money lenders on a very high rate of interest. (3) Problem of marketing: One of the major problems faced by small entrepreneurs is in the field of marketing. They are not in a position to get first hand information about the market i. e. information about completion, taste, liking disliking of consumers. Therefore, they are not able to upgrade their products according to the changing business environment. These small units acceding to the changing business environment. These small units often do not process any marketing organization. As a consequence, their product quality compares unfavorably with the quality of the products of the large scale industries. Therefore, these industries suffer from a comparative disadvantage as compared to large scale industries. (4) Problem of under utilization of capacity: Most of the small entrepreneurs are suffering from the problem of under utilization of capacity. Small scale units are making only 40 to 50 percent use of their installed capacities due to various reasons such as shortage of finance, raw-materials, power and under-developed markets for their products. (5) Outdated technology: Most of the small entrepreneurs depend upon old techniques and equipment. These units find it very difficult to modernize their plant and machinery due to limited capacity and capital. He quality of products and productivity tend be low in the absence of modern technology and that too at higher cost. They are in no position to complete with their better equipped rivals operating modern large scale units. For example, Khaki products even after government subsidy seem to be costlier. (6) Poor project planning: Poor project planning is another problem faced by small entrepreneurs. In the absence of education and experience, these entrepreneurs do not attach much significance to viability studies. They do not bother to study the demand aspect, marketing problems, sources of raw materials. Inexperienced and incompetent entrepreneurs often submit unrealistic feasibility reports and incomplete documents which invariably result in delays in completing promotional formalities. They cannot afford to avail services of project consultants due to limited financial resources. (7) Inadequate infrastructure: Insufficient quality and quantity of transportation, communication and other basic services particularly in backward areas is another problem. Inadequate infrastructure results in under utilization of capacity and wastages. Inadequate infrastructures also adversely affect the quality, quantity and production schedule of the enterprises operating in these areas. Therefore, their functioning will become uneconomical and unviable. (8) Problem of skilled manpower: A small entrepreneur located in backward area may not have problem of unskilled workers but it may be exposed to the problem of non-availability of skilled workers. Skilled workers may be reluctant to work in their areas and small scale enterprise may not afford to pay the wages and other facilities demanded by these persons. Unavailability of skilled manpower result in lower productivity, deterioration of quality, increase in wastages, rise in other overhead costs and finally adverse impact on the profitability of these small scale units. (9) Managerial problem: Another serious problem for small scale units is managerial inadequacies. Modern business demands vision, knowledge, skill, aptitude and whole hearted devotion. The managerial competence of the entrepreneur is very important for the success of any venture. An entrepreneur is required to undergo training and counseling for developing his organization revolves. Therefore, he must be fully conversant with all aspects of management. Lack of proper commitment and managerial skill will add to the problems of entrepreneurs. (10) Other problems: In addition to above discussed problems, the small scale industries have been constrained by a number of other problems such as trained technicians, technological obsolescence, unorganized nature of operation etc. How to cite Problems of Small Scale Industries, Essay examples
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Marketing Strategies for Influence and Productivity. Answer: Introduction In this paper, the selected organization is Peters Ice Cream which is an Australia-based Ice Manufacture Company. Besides that, it is one of the top ice cream manufacturers in the industry of Australia, and it was founded in the year 1907. On the other hand, the Peter ice cream was introduced to R R ice cream of European firm and Peters Ice Cream came into the international market many years ago. On the other hand, Peters Ice Cream has implemented many changes in their business strategies (Brown, 2004). Moreover, their strategies changes which need to implement as that, innovative strategies planning to execute properly in the competitive market for sustainability. Along with this part, the company must motivate and encourage their employees for future growth with innovative approaches to capture the whole ice market in Australia. In addition, various issues that affect ice market will be discussed in this paper. On the other hand, the different marketing strategy of other rival comp anies how to influence the performance of Peter Ice Cream will also be evaluated in this study (Pearson, 2007). Marketing Advantages The market includes several factors or issue that impact the performance of an organization. Keeping in mind the end goal to accomplish desirable objectives organizations needs to lead some appropriate marketing strategies. As indicated by recent market research, Peters Ice Cream needs to concentrate on the correct marketing mix to enhance the revenue of the organization through marketing advantages. Though, so as to support in this competitive worldwide market Peters Ice Cream should implement strategy and utilize marketing advantages (Fulmer and Goldsmith, 2011). Each and every segment of the marketing advantages will be discussed in this paper. Moreover, various aspects of current marketing advantages will be analyzed through proper arguments and justification. Along with part, Peter Ice Cream can improve the productivity and customer satisfaction level by effective quality ice products and service. Besides that, the marketing advantages incorporates segmentation, targeting, diffe rentiation, and positioning and each type of components of effective marketing advantages are explained below: Segmentation The segmentation is one of the tangible aspects of marketing advantages, and it concludes geographic, customer behavior, and psychological and demographic. On the other hand, segmentation demonstrates the accurate and current market opportunities which organization can grab for improvement(Weinstein, 2008). With the help of certain atmosphere, thickness, the market estimate the geographic component, the management of Peters Ice Cream ought to examine the marketing environment so as to create any new item in the market because the geographic area is a fundamental variable. Moreover, Peters Ice Cream includes a few ranges where huge thickness clients are accessible. Apart from that, the demographic segmentation is another notable part on the grounds that in a few regions like different items of interest effortlessly accessible. In addition, the customer behavior mostly effects the demographic segmentation and incorporates a few components of customer approach, for example, age, wage, e thnic foundation and family cycle (Bigalow, 2002). Along these lines, Peters Ice Cream ought to create their items as indicated by the demographic phases of clients. Despite the fact that, the psychological segmentation section a market on the premise of motivates, identity and way of life of customers. Apart from that, the psychological components influence a consumer in a successful state of mind. Besides that, Peters Ice Cream should provide a careful attention to psychological figures demand to attract more customers. Deliberating the behavioral segmentation, among all because the supportability of an ice related item depends on upon the consumer behavior. On the other hand, Peters Ice Cream should analyze the customer behavior before presenting another ice products in the market. Target The targeting clients are one of the essential marketing practice that influences organizational performance. Peter Ice Cream needs to analyze the need of potential customers and targeting them which is a strategy keeping in mind the end goal to grab more potential customers. In this targeting strategy, Peters Ice Cream draws the focus of clients with an unsociable offer, and they disregard the market portion contrast(Bartolini, Hilton and Prati, 2006). Additionally, the comparative requirements of customers must draw the attention of Peters Ice Cream. So, they can distribute and offer individual ice product according to need of the customer. On the other hand, Peters Ice Cream needs to focus on the requirements of their target customers to increase profit. Be that as it may, with the assistance of target segmentation, Peters Ice Cream can be determined on an optimal about what number of assemblies of the customer to be focused on their business. With a specific end goal to assess ev ery market section, the objective marketing process assumes a basic part, and the estimations of market portions are additionally concealed by target marketing process. Be that as it may, the idea of target marketing is affected by the intelligent ramifications of market rationality. In this way, Peters Ice Cream needs to focus on a particular section which can create as most extreme benefit alongside incredible customer satisfaction. With the assistance of a solitary fragment, the majority of the organizations include more portions in their objective marketing process. Besides that, Peter Ice Cream should target customers as per the behavior analyzed which was observed the management(Harvard business review on customer relationship management, 2001). Differentiation With a specific end goal to get the main position of Australian frozen industry, Peters Ice Cream brought a ton of variations in their marketing actions. On the other hand, Peter Ice Cream continually modify their marketing strategy inside the time base and get achievement in a skillful mind-set. Peters Ice Cream obtained 'operation Checkout' that includes the desertion of green shield stamps, the conclusion of cost and suit buying for all stores of Peters Ice Cream. Apart from that, In 1999 Peters Ice Cream effectively assumed control over the chain of the frozen yogurt market(Harvard business review on customer relationship management, 2001). In addition, Peters Ice Cream impelled a certainty card, and they accustomed online shopping management withdraw the reflection of customers. Peter Ice Cream also provide service to the housing complex and corporate sections. Moreover, they operated the merged stores with the help of Express arrangement. In present days, more than 500 Peters I ce Cream ice stores have been recognized over the Australia, and it presented an imaginative USA telecom division and online marketing. Position In the segment of Peters Ice Cream, they have effectively executed authentic marketing strategy and satisfy many customers through their excellent ice products. Utilizing the promotional activity, Peters Ice Cream position itself as a low-value ice item in the stores of Peters Ice Cream. They perceive that this strategy is exceptionally helpful in ice industry and a colossal number of clients are pulled in by these low estimated ice items. Other than that, after a specific timeframe, Peters Ice Cream can refund their customer with the assistance of dependability program. Besides, they have compelling and gorgeous stores which draw the attention of the customer (Promotional activity, 2004). Recommendation In the most recent couple of years, the frozen distributor like Peters Ice Cream have turned out to be increasingly successful and enhanced its shares in the marketplace consistently. Different organizations rule a large portion of the Australian ice market. The real brands as opponents of Peters Ice Cream had possessed a greater stake in the marketplace(Aaker, 2008). On the other hand, Peter Ice Cream needs to remain in front of these competitors and for this, it needs to take a gander at a few components which are influencing its worldwide market. Besides that, the marketing analysis helps the business to choose the item and development of market strategy is called Ansoff Growth grid. In addition, it recommends that the endeavor taken by the business for the development of market trust on upon the condition of the market. Apart from that, the state can hold of existing items in existing market. Aside from that, Peter Ice Cream should use the process for their strategy development. Along with this part, it needs to satisfy the consumer's necessity on the grounds that the behaviors of the customer are evolving. Moreover, the customers should be offered by Peter Ice Cream with new and tasty ice or frozen products(Aaker, 2008). Conclusion This paper is based on the practical marketing strategy implementation of Peter Ice Cream. Besides that, the management needs to focus on these targeted customers to increase profit. Moreover, with the help of the marketing segmentation, targeting, and positioning, Peter Ice Cream can identify actual requirements of the customers to serve desired ice products. On the other hand, in order to gain competitive advantages, Peter Ice Cream must recognize the strategies of rival companies in ice industry. Besides that, Peter Ice Cream can develop the performance of the organization by satisfying their customers. References Aaker, D. (2008).Strategic market management. 1st ed. New York: Wiley. Bartolini, L., Hilton, R. and Prati, A. (2006).Money market integration. 1st ed. [Washington, D.C.]: International Monetary Fund, Research Dept. Bigalow, S. (2002).Profitable candlestick trading. 1st ed. New York: Wiley. Brown, W. (2004).Organization. 1st ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Fulmer, R. and Goldsmith, M. (2011).The leadership investment. 1st ed. New York: AMACOM. Harvard business review on customer relationship management. (2001). 1st ed. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Pearson, G. (2007).The competitive organization. 1st ed. London: McGraw-Hill. Promotional activity. (2004). 1st ed. Watford: IGD. Weinstein, A. (2008).Market segmentation. 1st ed. Chicago, Ill.: Probus Pub. Co.
Saturday, March 28, 2020
This four-page undergraduate essay explains, compares, and contrasts the theories and discussions of Plato and Aristotle regarding the best political association. Quotes from Politics and the Republic are used to support the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis. Plato and Aristotle: An Analysis Determining the best form of political association was important to the ancient Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle, and each of them expressed his opinion in important works such as the Republic and Politics. In explaining, comparing, and contrasting the political philosophies of Plato and Aristotle, it is evident that each of them shared the same goal of identifying and promoting the best form of political government. They also shared in common the same philosophy regarding the origins of a political state. The State arises, Plato says through Socrates in the Republic, Ã¢â¬Å"out of the needs of mankind. Ã¢â¬ (Plato) Aristotle agrees, and declares that the state is a political partnership that exists for purposes of self-sufficiency as well as for the sake of living well. We will write a custom essay sample on Plato and Aristotle: An Analysis or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In other words, the State exists in order to provide for the well-being of its citizens. Aristotle expresses this in Politics when he argues, Ã¢â¬Å"the good life is the purpose of the city-state. Ã¢â¬ (Aristotle) Furthermore, both Aristotle and Plato agreed that Man is by nature a political animal, because he has the ability to express his thoughts about justice. Their respective analyses reflected their respect for justice, and their elevation of it to the highest priority. In the Republic, Plato defines just political rule as a system in which each interest is satisfied to the proper extent and everyone has what is theirs. The philosophers have the knowledge they want; the warriors have the honors they want; and the commoners have the goods and pleasures they want, under the enlightened guidance of philosophers and warriors. The methods of Aristotle and Plato were similar in many ways. They both utilized logic, evaluations of contemporary politics, and lengthy comparisons of various types of political rule to arrive at their conclusions. As citizens of ancient Greece, they both shared much the same outlook on society, religion, morality, and politics. They also shared similar historical perspectives, and their perceptions of contemporary events were formed through the same philosophical context. One of the contrasts between their methods is that Plato used analogies to make his points. He examined a political state by comparing the state with the human soul. Unlike Aristotle, he also used a style of approach in which he made his points through dialogues involving Socrates. He also designed an ideal state run by people he referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"The GuardiansÃ¢â¬ which differed from AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s approach in Politics, in which style and form more closely resembled an essay or monologue. In Politics, Aristotle emphasized that correct political rule involves pursuing policies which are to the common advantage of the most people. Aristotle reasoned that rulers who placed their own interests above everyone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s had no political legitimacy, for their tyranny brought suffering upon their own people. Aristotle described the best forms of political rule as kingship, aristocracy and polity, and described the worst forms as tyranny, oligarchy and democracy. Plato was also harshly critical of tyranny, and described it in the Republic as, Ã¢â¬Å"not a matter of minor theft and violence, but of wholesale plunder, sacred and profane, private or public. Ã¢â¬ (Plato) Both menÃ¢â¬â¢s methods involved a comprehensive analysis of the consequences of each form of rule. Aristotle criticized Democracy because its consequences were rule by the multitude, which causes injustice. He criticized Oligarchy because its consequences were rule by the wealthy, which also causes injustice; and he criticized Tyranny because its consequences were dictatorship, which again causes injustice. In terms of the merits of the citizenry, Aristotle notes that the people may collectively be the best judges of certain things, so it is justified for them to take part in deliberations. But like Plato, he feels that the common people are not qualified to share in the highest offices. Both Plato and Aristotle also agree that laws need to be made in accordance with the regime, and agree that the more just a ruler is, the more just the laws will be. Essentially, both Aristotle and Plato asserted that the goal of politics should be justice. One difference between them is that Plato believed that the best claim to rule was education and virtue, although he conceded that there is also a claim to rule based on wealth and on numbers. Another difference is that Aristotle emphasized that the most important task for a leader was to be a lawgiver, and to frame the appropriate constitution for the city-state. In AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s system, it was the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s duty to provide enduring laws, customs, and institutions for the citizens. According to Aristotle, once the constitution was in place, the ruler needed to take the necessary steps to maintain it, to implement reforms when he considered them necessary, and to guard against any subversion of the political system. AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis on a constitution sets him apart from Plato, who considered philosopher kingship the best form of political rule. Aristotle described a constitution as Ã¢â¬Å"a certain ordering of the inhabitants of the city-state,Ã¢â¬ and as Ã¢â¬Å"the way of lifeÃ¢â¬ of the citizens. (Aristotle) He also speaks of the constitution of a community as Ã¢â¬Å"the form of the compoundÃ¢â¬ and argues that whether the community is the same over time depends on whether it has the same constitution. (Aristotle) It should be noted that despite the fact that AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s political views were influenced by Plato, he was very critical of the ideal city-state set forth in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic. He based his criticism on the grounds that PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s ideal city-state overvalued political unity, embraced a system of communism that was impractical and inimical to human nature, and neglected the happiness of the individual citizens. In contrast, in AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s view of the ideal State each and every citizen would possess moral virtue and the equipment to carry it out in practice, and thereby attain a life of excellence and complete happiness. All of the citizens would hold political office and possess private property because Ã¢â¬Å"one should call the city-state happy not by looking at a part of it but at all the citizens. Ã¢â¬ (Aristotle) In conclusion, the ancient Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle were both concerned with identifying and promoting the best form of political association. In works such as the Republic and Politics, they used similar methods of analysis to evaluate the best form of political rule. For Aristotle, the best form of political rule corresponded to the best way of life for a human being. Since the best way of life is living nobly and according to virtue, the best political form of rule is the one which promotes this kind of life. For Plato, the best form of political rule was Aristocracy, for it involves rule by the best people in the political community.
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Elements in the Human Body and What They Do There are several ways to consider the composition of the human body, including the elements, type of molecule, or type of cells.Ã Most of the human body is made up of water, H2O, with cells consisting of 65-90% water by weight. Therefore, it isnt surprising that most of a human bodys mass is oxygen. Carbon, the basic unit for organic molecules, comes in second. 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of just six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus. Oxygen (O) - 65% - Oxygen together with hydrogen form water, which is the primary solvent found in the body and is used to regulate temperature and osmotic pressure. Oxygen is found in many key organic compounds.Carbon (C) - 18% - Carbon has four bonding sites for other atoms, which makes it the key atom for organic chemistry. Carbon chains are used to build carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids, and proteins. Breaking bonds with carbon is an energy source.Hydrogen (H) - 10% - Hydrogen is found in water and in all organic molecules.Nitrogen (N) - 3% - Nitrogen is found in proteins and in the nucleic acids that make up the genetic code.Calcium (Ca) - 1.5% - Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. Its used as a structural material in bones, but it is essential for protein regulation and muscle contraction.Phosphorus (P) - 1.0% - Phosphorus is found in the molecule ATP, which is the primary energy carrier in cells. Its also found in bone.Potassium (K) - 0.35% - Potassium is an im portant electrolyte. Its used to transmit nerve impulses and heartbeat regulation. Sulfur (S) - 0.25% - Two amino acids include sulfur. The bonds sulfur forms help give proteins the shape they need to perform their functions.Sodium (Na) - 0.15% - Sodium is an important electrolyte. Like potassium, it is used for nerve signaling. Sodium is one of the electrolytes that helps regulate the amount of water in the body.Chlorine (Cl) - 0.15% -Ã Chlorine is an important negatively-charged ion (anion) used to maintain fluid balance.Magnesium (Mg) - 0.05% - Magnesium is involved in over 300 metabolic reactions. Its used to build the structure of muscles and bones and is an important cofactor in enzymatic reactions.Iron (Fe) - 0.006% - Iron is found in hemoglobin, the molecule responsible for oxygen transport in red blood cells.Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Selenium (Se), Molybdenum (Mo), Fluorine (F), Iodine (I), Manganese (Mn), Cobalt (Co) - total less than 0.70%Lithium (Li), Strontium (Sr), Aluminum (Al), Silicon (Si), Lead (Pb), Vanadium (V), Arsenic (As), Bromine (Br) - pres ent in trace amounts Many other elements may be found in extremely small quantities. For example, the human body often contains trace amounts of thorium, uranium, samarium, tungsten, beryllium, and radium. Trace elements considered essential in humans include zinc, iodine, possibly silicon, probably boron, selenium, probably nickel, chromium, manganese, lithium, possibly arsenic, molybdenum, cobalt, and possibly vanadium. Not all of the elements found within the body are essential for life. Some are considered contaminants that appear to do no harm, but serve no known function. Examples include cesium and titanium. Others are actively toxic, including mercury, cadmium, and the radioactive elements. Arsenic is considered to be toxic to humans, but serves a function in other mammals (goats, rats, hamsters) in trace amounts. Aluminum is interesting because it is the third most common element in the Earths crust, yet serves no known function in living cells. While fluorine is used by plants to produce protective toxins, it serves no essential biological role in human beings. You may also wish to view theÃ elemental composition of an average human bodyÃ by mass. Sources Chang, Raymond (2007). Chemistry, 9th Edition. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-110595-6.Emsley, John (2011). Natures Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. OUP Oxford. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-19-960563-7.Frausto Da Silva, J. J. R; Williams, R. J. P (2001-08-16). The Biological Chemistry of the Elements: The Inorganic Chemistry of Life. ISBN 9780198508489.H. A., V. W. Rodwell; P. A. Mayes, Review of Physiological Chemistry, 16th ed., Lange Medical Publications, Los Altos, California 1977.Zumdahl, Steven S. and Susan A. (2000). Chemistry, 5th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 894. ISBN 0-395-98581-1. Elements in the Human Body and What They Do
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Dell Inc Paper - Essay Example In addition, the third party integration cost is higher than the cost of integration done by contract manufacturers. The US labors costs are higher than that of China. From the figure 6-4, it is obvious that in L5 the chassis (without motherboard) is shipped to the United States first, and subsequently the motherboards are airfreighted to the country (Simchi-Levi et al., p.184). Since the motherboard is not manufactured at the time of shipping the chassis, the company incurs additional logistics costs from airfreight. While analyzing the six of the proposed manufacturing solutions to the Dell, it is advisable for the company to manage the 3PI (3rd Party Integration) directly to improve its supply chain efficiency. When the 3PI is managed by Dell directly, the Dell management can enjoy more control over its supply chain activities, and ensure uninterrupted flow of finished products. Another major advantage of this manufacturing solution is that it would help the company trim down integration costs by employing cheap labor. In addition, this manufacturing option may assist the firm to minimize its dependence on external parties. The potential demerit of this solution is that Dell has not adequate expertise in the integration process and this issue may lead to product quality problems. If the supply chain shortage gets deteriorated, the company cannot manage the situation by simply practicing the option 4 (Dell managed 3PI). Under this circumstance, the organization must switch to the option 3A Ã¢â¬â Integration at SLC/hub. This option is relatively less complex for worldwide procurement, and therefore it may assist the company to resolve the issue. In addition, the management of supply quality engineering is minimized under this option, and hence the chipset supply is likely to improve. However, the option 3A is not very effective considering the difficulties associated with cost accounting. Finally, additional production control and